Ethics & Engagement across the Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programmes

On-line ethics training: experiences of a health systems researcher

This is a blog post by Maureen Njue. This blog post (as well as the comment by Liam Boggs that follows it) originally appeared on the RESYST website here:


Maureen's blog has been re-posted on e-MOPs with her permission.

In this blog post Maureen Njue discusses the purpose, use, and range of different online research ethics training courses.

Maureen Njue
06 April 2015

Photo of Maureen Njue‘For protocols to be reviewed, all the listed Principal Investigators (PIs) and Co –PIs need a certificate as proof of having done an online ethics course’ or ‘all applications must be accompanied by a certificate of completion from an online ethics course’.

As health researchers we often read these kind of statements with great trepidation and angst, perhaps even more so as health systems researchers as opposed to biomedical researchers.  But I think that although there are some problems and limits with these on-line courses, they can also contribute to our understanding and thinking about some key ethical concerns in our work, so they are worth considering… but as a start rather than end point.

Examples of ethics courses

There are quite a number of easily accessible on-line ethics courses out there, including: NIH Research EthicsTRREE (Training and Resources in Research Ethics Evaluation); CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative); FHI360 Research Ethics Training Curriculum, etc. All of these courses include a range of modules on research ethics, including information sessions followed by multiple choice knowledge tests.  Those who pass the knowledge tests receive a certificate, valid for a certain period of time.

Why do an on-line course? 

When I’ve faced a requirement to do an on-line course, I have often wondered if these courses are really necessary for the type of work I do: as a social scientist I only seek to gather information from participants through interviews, review existing data or document reviews; no samples are taken, no drugs or injections are administered.  But the basic principles governing research ethics are universal (even if the way they are applied in different situations differs hugely), and at the end of doing the modules I have always felt that I have learnt a lot about ethical issues and challenges that I would not have otherwise have known.  This has been to my work and has also helped me understand more about ethical issues in other people’s research too.

How to choose an on-line ethics course? 

You may be required to do a specific course or set of modules.  But where there are no specifications, my colleagues have often advised that one of the shortest, easiest and most relevant for qualitative or health systems researchers is the CITI course.  It takes about ten hours altogether, which can be spread over time.  We’ve found it interesting to do it in pairs to discuss each module as we go.  We like it because it’s straightforward and user friendly, recognised by many institutions, has relatively clear and unambiguous questions, and most importantly has a social and behavioural research module.  Problems with it are that it is quite US focused, and biomedical research orientated, but it’s certainly the best I’ve done so far. 

Applying an ethical lens to my work

I have found elements of on-line training useful to applying an ethical lens to some of the issues/challenges I encounter in my day to day running of studies.  For instance, deciding if and how much to pay a participant for a 3-4 hour interview or focus group discussion is at least as much of an ethical issue as a budgetary or logistical one.  Researchers can easily undercompensate participants, which can be harmful, especially where participants rely on subsistence forms of livelihoods and where taking significant time can have implications for their ability to feed their family for that day. Conversely, paying too much might make participating difficult to refuse and can cause jealousies in the community over those who get chosen to participate and those who miss out.

Moving forward, I think the crux of the matter is in the application of what has been learnt into practice and keeping a keen eye on how we can best respect the rights of our participants and local communities.  On-line ethics courses is one tiny step in helping us to think through this. There are many other guidelines and papers that can help too (See resource document: The ethics of health systems research:  illustrative guidelines and empirical studies).  It would be great to hear from others about on-line courses they have done, and ultimately have one developed specifically on the ethics of social science research.  I understand there is a social science on-line training course being developed by members of the Global Health Bioethics Network to be put on theGlobal Clinical Trials platform, so watch this space!!!


Maureen Njue is a Research Officer at Department of Public Health Research within the KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi. Her main roles include: supporting research ethics policy and practice at the research programme level, and coordinating the Research Ethics Group within the Department.


Dear Maureen,

I really enjoyed reading your blog post and it is always refreshing to hear the views of researchers who are actually using online training courses. There has been a boom in online training courses over the past several years and it is not always easy to decide which course is the most suitable for the individuals training requirements. The information you provide regarding the selection of the most suitable course to take and its application to your work gives a great insight to those who may be in a similar position. Your blog post lists some of the top free online research ethics courses available which I too would recommend to other researchers. I did however want to mention that there are other free online Research Ethics courses available that may be useful to other researchers.

Your blog post mentions Global Health Bioethics and Global Health Trials which are both member sites of The Global Health Network (https://tghn.org/). The Global Health Network is an online science park that allows researchers to work together without geographical, institutional or financial barriers to accelerate and streamline research. The Network currently provides a free 14 module online research ethics course entitled Research Ethics Online Training (https://globalhealthtrainingcentre.tghn.org/elearning/research-ethics/) that has been adapted from an e-Learning course and resource package designed and produced by the World Health Organization. The course modules cover the following topics and each module takes between 15 to 30 minutes to complete:

1. Introduction to Research Ethics
2. Principles and Guidelines
3. Evaluating Risks and Benefits
4. Issues in Study Design
5. Understanding Vulnerability
6. Obligations to Research Participants
7. Engaging with Communities
8. Privacy and Confidentiality
9. Informed Consent
10. Other Ethical Issues
11. Biobanks and genomic research
12. Including people with disabilities
13. Women in Biomedical Research
14. Research in Public Health Emergencies

This course is available from the Global Health Training Centre (https://globalhealthtrainingcentre.tghn.org/) where you can find further peer reviewed free online research training courses such as ‘Good Clinical Practice’, ‘Introduction to Clinical Research’ and ‘Introduction to Informed Consent’. There is also another research ethics modular course; Essential Elements of Ethics (https://globalhealthtrainingcentre.tghn.org/essential-elements-ethics/), which is designed and produced by the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center at Harvard University to assist clinical researchers as they write their study protocol and ethics committee members as they review and analyse clinical trial protocols. Please visit the Global Health Training Centre to view the full list of online training courses available.

As mentioned in your blog, members of Global Health Bioethics and Global Health Reviewers are in the process of developing a social science online training course that will address the ethical issues particular to social science methodologies and interventions. This course will be available from the training centre this summer.

I hope this information is useful to you and to others and I wish you all the best with your work in Kilifi.

Liam Boggs
Training Manager
The Global Health Network

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Views: 206

Comment by Elvis Moyo on April 13, 2015 at 5:21

I have really been encouraged by your post Maureen. I almost failed to register an online course because i thought it might not benefit me but after reading your blog,i have given it a second thought and i  will definitely register.  thank you. 

Comment by Michael Parker on April 13, 2015 at 12:26

Hi Maureen. This is a really useful blog. Thanks so much for sharing your experience and views. One thing that readers might also be interested in knowing is that there are also a number universities around the world that run on-line ethics courses at Masters or PhD level too. Two that I know of are Manchester University in the UK and Monash University in Australia. Other readers might have other suggestions? Thanks again Maureen.

Comment by Maureen Njue on April 13, 2015 at 14:05

Thanks Mike, glad I got the opportunity to share.

Elvis,glad I have inspired you to do an Ethics online course.

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